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Arizona State Guide

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Arizona is the sixth largest and the 15th most populous state and is located in the southwestern region of the United States [1]. The state is bordered by Utah to the north, New Mexico on the east, Nevada and California on the west and the state also share common point with the southwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona is a beautiful state that features scenic landscape of mountains and valleys, striking stretches of desert, canyons, and high plateaus. Over half of the state is composed of mountains and plateaus. Arizona is commonly known as the “Grand Canyon State” after its famous natural feature, the Grand Canyon and also known as the copper state because of the state’s rich mineral possession.

Arizona Fast Facts:

Capital city: Phoenix
Largest city: Phoenix
Sate Land Animal: Ringtail Cat
Sate Bird: Cactus Wren
State Tree: Yellow Palo Verde
State Flower: Saguaro cactus blossom(Carnegiea gigantea)
State Song: Arizona
State Soil: Casa Grande
Common Languages Spoken: English, Spanish, Navajo, German, Chinese
state bird State FlowerState animalState treeImage source: http://azgovernor.gov/


History of Arizona


Arizona is a state rich in history. Arizona achieved its statehood on February 14, 1912 [2]. The name “Arizona” appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, meaning "small spring".

Arizona was a part of the state of Senora, Mexico but later with the Gadsden Purchase, United States took possession of northern Arizona after the Mexican-American war (1846–1848) and became a part of the Territory of New Mexico. Later, Arizona split from the Territory of New Mexico and from the Arizona Territory.
cliff dwellingFather of ArizonaMiningPurchaseImage source: http://azgovernor.gov/
A treaty was signed by President Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862 and Arizona was proclaimed and recognized as a Confederate Territory.

After the Civil War, several positive as well as negative changes were brought in Arizona. With the construction of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1880, the Chinese came to Arizona. Chinese opened small businesses and grocery stores on the leased land from Mexicans. After the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the Chinese also helped those people attempting to enter the United States from Mexico. The Texans came in and introduced ranching which was largely adopted in southern Arizona. Cattle boom happened in 1873-91 but the drought 1991-93 has hugely devastated large number of cattle and resulted in severe overgrazing, but ranching was maintained as a smaller scale. An important act called Taylor Grazing Act has been implemented in 1934 by the United States federal law that regulates cattle grazing on the public lands (excluding Alaska) to enhance and control range land conditions

Copper boom began in 1885 and Silver was discovered in 1877. Tombstone was famous as a mining town and major mining happened from 1877 to 1929. There was a boom in Arizona’s population with the onset of California Gold Rush in 1849. The gold rush led thousands of miners to come and settle in Arizona. Arizona has witnessed many major changes since the 19th century. The revolution is remarkable from a mere mining territory to a modern-day-Arizona that has become a modern industrial hub with large important cities.

The arrival of Wyatt Earp and his brothers in Arizona in 1879 is a historical importance as they held important rights in the Vizina mine, water rights and gambling concessions. Virgil, Morgan and Wyatt were appointed as federal and local marshals. One of the most notable happenings in the history of Arizona is the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, the most famous shootout of the Old West. The brothers had a shootout with the Clanton gang and three Clanton outlaws were killed.

The Great Depression of 1929-39 effected Arizona to a great extent. Many federal, state, local and private relief efforts assisted in raising funds and charity programs. The economic recession continued and became worst as the state was short of money in 1931 or 1932. Conditions didn’t improve until New Deal relief operations began on a large scale in 1933.

Arizona has a large Indian community. The state has the third largest Indian population next to Oklahoma and California. Over quarter of the land of the state is composed of Indian community and large percentage of the United States Tribal communities is located in the southwest region of Arizona. In the late 19th century many forts were constructed by the army to confirm and mark the Indian reservations.

Arizona Statehood

statesealImage source:
http://azgovernor.gov/
Arizona’s Statehood Act was signed on February 14, 1912 by President William Howard Taft. Since then Arizona was known as the “Valentine State.” Carl Hayden is the first congressman of Arizona. After 1945, there was growth in Arizona’s population, especially in the Phoenix region. With the urban growth, many industries evolved and marked the economic growth of the state. George Wylie Paul Hunt was the first Governor of Arizona. Under his long term of office, he emphasized the abolition of capital punishment.

Arizona History Timeline

1800s

(1821) All of Arizona governed by Mexico
(1846 - 1848) The Mexican-American War
(1854) Copper discovered in Arizona
(1858) Gold found in the Gila River
(1863) Arizona Territory created by Congress, with Prescott as the capital
(1867)The capital was first established in Prescott, in 1867 changed to Tucson, and was eventually moved in 1889 to Phoenix.
(1881) The infamous "Gunfight at the OK Corral"
(1889) Phoenix became the capital city

1900s

(1912) Arizona became the 48th State on February 14th, Valentine's Day
(1919) Grand Canyon National Park established
(1930 Discovered planet Pluto by astronomers at the Lowell Observatory
(1936) Hoover Dam is completed
(1948) Arizona native American Indians won the right to vote
(1964) Arizona Senator, Barry Goldwater, ran for U.S. President
(1968) London Bridge moved from England, to Lake Havasu City, Arizona
(1981) Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court

2000s

(2002) Wildfires spread through a half-dozen towns; 25,000 forced to evacuate
(2007) Arizona Senator John McCain announced candidacy for U.S. President
(2008) John McCain won Republican nomination for U.S. President
(2010) Arizona enacted strict immigration bill.

Geography of Arizona


Arizona is the sixth largest state with a total land area of 113,990 sq mi(295,234 km2). It is located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is one of the Four Corners states and is bordered by Utah to the north, New Mexico to the east, Mexico to the south, and California and Nevada to the west. Phoenix is the capital and the largest city of Arizona. Arizona is considered to be a big desert land and the state's geographic center lies in Yavapai County. Arizona shares an international border with Mexico in the south. Some of the important cities of Arizona include Phoenix, Tucson, Tempe, Chandler, Flagstaff, Mesa, Glendale, Gilbert, Yuma, and Scottsdale.
Arizona Geographical Facts:

Total Area: 113,990 sq mi(295,234 km2)
Longitude: 109o  03′ W to 114o  49′ W
Latitude: 31o  20′ N to 37o N
Largest state: Phoenix
Highest point: Humphreys Peak
12,637 ft (3852 m)
Mean point: 4,100 ft (1250 m)
Lowest point: Colorado River at theSonora border
72 ft (22 m)
Area Under Forest: 19 million acres
Time Zone: Mountain: UTC -7 (no DST) except Navajo Nation- Mountain: UTC -7/-6
The southern part of the state features desert Basin and Range region but over half of the state is composed of mountains and plateaus. Irrespective of the state's arid desert climate, 27% of Arizona is forest [3]. Ponderosa Pine forest is the largest pine forest in the United States and is located in the Grand Canyon State.

Topography of Arizona

Arizona is composed of three major land areas; the Colorado plateau, the Transition Zone, and the Basin and Ridge Region.

The Colorado Plateau

The Colorado Plateau is a broad and flat land made up of high desert, episodic soaring mountain peaks and deep canyons. The plateau extends through the northern region of the state of Arizona. The Colorado River and its main tributaries, the Green, San Juan, and Little Colorado, runs across the Colorado Plateau and formed the deepest Grand Canyon, in the southwest corner. The Grand Canyon is a steep sided deep canyon that is formed by the carving of the Colorado Rivers and its tributaries.The Grand Canyon is located within Grand Canyon National Park, the Hualapai Tribal Nation, the Havasupai Tribe and the Navajo Nation. The other canyons formed by the carving of the tributaries of the Colorado River include the Canyon de Chelly and Oak Creek Canyon. Arizona is also nicknamed as the “Red Rock Country” from the view of the bright bare rock due to dryness and erosion.

Grand CanyonImage source: http://azgovernor.gov/
The Colorado Plateau encompasses large numbers of the United States National Park, including Grand Canyon, Mesa Verde, Capitol Reef, Zion, Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Arches, and Petrified Forest. Some of the major National Monuments include Dinosaur, Canyons of the Ancients, Hovenweep, Natural Bridges, Wupatki, Sunset Crater Volcano, and Colorado. The geological formation called the Black Mesa is found in Colorado Plateau. The plateau is well known for its stability and The Colorado Plateau’s rocks are a major source of oil and natural gas, including uranium, coal, gilsonite and uintaite. Major petroleum deposits are located in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado, the Uinta Basin of Utah, the Piceance Basin of Colorado, and the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona.

The Transition Zone

The Transition Zone is a narrow strip of land and is a transition from the higher Colorado Plateau to the Arizona Basin and Ridge Region and lower elevation deserts. The zone is characterized by a broken and occasional series of mountain ranges and valleys. At the southern edge, the Mogollon Plateau forms the major features of the transition zone. The mountain regions that are located in the Transition Zone include the Mazatzal, Oak Creek Canyon, White Mountains, Santa Maria, and Sierra Ancha.

The Basin and Ridge Region

The Basin and Ridge Region of Arizona is a small strip of land that lies in the South of the Transition Zone along the western border with California. The region features a unique topography resulted from tectonic extension and made up of sudden changes in elevation, with episodic narrow mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins. The region comprises of numerous deserts and eco-regions that extends across the western United States and covers the northwestern Mexico. All the ranges within the region are collectively termed as the Great Basin Ranges. Some of the notable mountain ranges include Chiricahua, Santa Catalina, Gila, Hualapai, Huachuca, Pinaleno, Santa Rita, and Superstition.

Arizona State Forestry Division

The Arizona State Forestry Division is devoted in protecting, managing and uplifting the forests of Arizona. The division offers several services to protect and prevent wildfire, preserve, utilize and market the natural resources, forest health and oversees the entire urban and community forestry. Forests in Arizona occupy approximately 27% and 19 million acres of the state. Forests in Arizona are diversified and range from riparian gallery forests in the lower elevation desert regions to sub-Alpine and montane forests in the higher elevations above 9000 feet and comprises of coniferous and hardwood trees. The most abundant forest type in Arizona are juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands. The major national forests in
Petrified forestImage source:
http://azgovernor.gov/
Arizona include Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest, Coconino National Forest, Coronado National Forest, Kaibab National Forest, Prescott National Forest, Tonto National Forest.

Ponderosa Pine forest is the world’s largest contiguous pine forest extending from around Flagstaff to the White Mountains region . The forest encompasses several mesas and mountains of the Colorado Plateau ranging from 6000 feet elevation to about 8000 feet elevation. The major prevailing type of pine found across the Colorado Plateau is the three-needled, Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine, gambel oak at lower elevations, New Mexico locust. The type of pine at higher elevations comprises of southwestern white pine, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, Rocky Mountain white fir, and quaking aspen.

The forest follows a varied climate pattern. July and August seasons receive the maximum rainfall and also the warmest seasons. As a fall arrives, the climate changes to dry climate. The winter temperature is average slightly above 30oF and also receives precipitation in the form of snow. The spring is dry with higher air temperatures, low humidity, and winds. During early to mid-July, thunder and lightning storms occur almost daily, especially along the southern edge of the Colorado.
GilaImage source:
http://azgovernor.gov/


The Arizona Petrified Forest National Park is located in Novajo and Apache counties in the northeastern part of Arizona. The Petrified Forest got its name from its surplus growth of petrified woods. The forest is also well known for its late Triassic period fossil remains, especially the fallen trees. The sediments and the remains of fossil logs form colorful and extensive formation called Chinle formation which gives a picturesque desert view. The park attracts numerous Paleontologists from all over the world who study and follow intensive research of the park's fossils.

The Arizona Mountain forests are temperate coniferous forests featuring steep mountains and rugged plateaus and present a rich variety of woodland habitats and wildlife. The rivers and their banks also provide important habitats for specific wildlife and fish. The flora of the area include spruce, fir, quaking aspen, Mexican trees, Chihuahua Pine, Apache pine and the Arizona Pine. The lower elevations have trees such as pinyon pine-juniper-oak woodland. The fauna include the miniature Northern Saw-whet Owl, beetles, centipedes, invertebrates and many birds and reptiles such as Montezuma Quail. The forests in Arizona provide varied scenic landscapes and also offer many locations for expedition, camping and photography.

Arizona Mountain Peaks

Bass canyonImage source:
http://www.arizonahighways.com/
Arizona is a state comprising of fairly large numbers of mountains. The mountain peaks in Arizona also provide many locations for recreational activities and a great get away for the locals and tourists from the heat of the plains. The mountains in Arizona provide a rich habitat for the flora and fauna and offer several important historical facts, diverse volcanic pumice rocks, biodiversity and many other important findings. The peaks of the San Francisco and the White Mountains are famous among the mountain climbers and hikers. The major peaks in Arizona include Humphrey's Peak, Agassiz Peak, San Francisco Mountain, Fremont Peak, Aubineau Peak, Ree's Peak, Doyle Peak, Mt Baldy, Mt Ord, and Paradise Butte.

Climate of Arizona

The state of Arizona has a varied and localized climatic condition due to its large area and alternating elevations. The climate varies from primarily desert arid weather, with mild winters and extremely hot summers in the lower elevations to a pleasant cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers in the higher elevations of the northern plateau regions.
Arizona Climatic Quick Facts:

Average Annual Temperature: 60oF (16oC)
Average Annual Rainfall;12.7 in (323 mm)
Annual high temperature: 128F(53C)
Annual low temperature: -40C
Highest Dew Point: 81F (27C)
The weather remains mild, averaging a minimum of 60oF (16oC) from late fall to early spring and is the coldest with occasional frosts from November through February with temperatures ranging from 40 to 75oF (4 to 24oC). The all time highest and the lowest temperatures of the state were recorded, with 128F(53C) at Lake Havasu City and -40C at Hawley Lake [4].

During the monsoon season, Arizona receives an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm) with lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, The highest dew point recorded was 81F (27C) and the dew point rises steeply for a short period in July or August. Arizona is also very prone to devastating floods due to heavy downpours.


Economy of Arizona


The Economy of Arizona
is fast growing. The gross state product of Arizona in the 2011 was $259 billion. The per capita personal income of the state is $40,828 [5]. The unemployment rate of the state according to November 2014 estimation is 6.8% [6]. Arizona’s largest employer is the state government and the largest private employer of the state is Wal-Mart.

The top employment sectors of Arizona include Trade, transportation, and utilities, Government, Education and health services, Professional and business services, Leisure and hospitality, Financial activities, Manufacturing, Construction and Agriculture.

Among the major sectors that contribute in generating revenues in Arizona include tourism, manufacturing, construction, tourism, mining and agriculture along with cattle ranching.
According to the Arizona Republic 100, the leading private employers of Arizona as of 2014 are [7]

Wal-Mart Stores Inc.: 32,438
Banner Health: 30,021
Kroger Co.: 17,001
Albertsons Inc.: 16,148
Wells Fargo: 15,323
McDonald's Corp.: 12,770
Intel Corp.: 11,200
Bank of America Corp.: 10,500
JP Morgan Chase & Co.: 10,500
Honeywell International Inc.: 10,000
American Airlines Group Inc.: 10,000

Agricluture in Arizona

Agriculture in Arizona comprises of 53% productions in crops and 47% productions in livestocks. The main crops of the state are cotton, wheat, lettuce, broccoli, sorghum, barley, cauliflower, corn, greenhouse and nursery production and fruits such as cantaloupes and citrus fruits. The major live stocks include cattle/calves, hogs and sheep/lambs. The top five agricultural products that generate maximum revenue of the state are dairy products, cotton, cattle and calves, lettuce, and hay.

Manufacturing in Arizona

Industries of various sectors have contributed immensely to the economic growth of the state. The main manufactured products of the state include high tech value added products like computers, printing, foods, fabric, metals, apparels, electronic equipments, aerospace and transportation equipments, chemical products, fabricated metal products (structural and sheet metals, window and door frames), machinery and primary metals.

Mining in Arizona

Resources of the state include copper, copper ore, gold, silver, molybdenum, coal, gravel and crushed stone. These precious products mined in Arizona contribute a major part in the economic growth of the state including the soil that supports the essential agricultural department of the state. Currently, copper is the top and the most important product mined in Arizona.

Tourism in Arizona

Tourism is also a principal part of Arizona’s economy and is one of the largest employers of the state. Many plans and programs are implemented to improve Arizona’s transportation network and accordingly enhance the tourism sector. Some of the major tourist attractions of the state include The Grand Canyon, Painted desert, Petrified Forest National Park, London Bridge, Lake Havasu City, Biosphere 2, and Monuments.


Education in Arizona


The Arizona State Board of Education supervises and administers the entire education system of Arizona. The Education system comprises of public and private schools, colleges, and Universities. The public schools in Arizona are divided into local school districts that function as an independent body but are managed and supervised by the elected county school superintendents. The three major universities that serve the state for higher education are Arizona State University, the University of Arizona, and Northern Arizona University and these are supervised by the Arizona Board of Regents. The State Board of Directors manages and supervises the state’s two-year vocational schools and community colleges.

Education
Image source: http://www.azed.gov/

Some of the main private universities and colleges in Arizona include American Indian College, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Apollo College, Arizona Christian University, Brown Mackie College, Art Center College of Design, Art Institute of Phoenix, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, International Baptist College, Northcentral University, A.T. Still University, Collins College, University of Phoenix, Phoenix School of Law, Prescott College, Thunderbird School of Global Management, Midwestern University, University of Advancing Technology, Western Governors University, Western International university, Art Institute of Tucson, Grand Canyon University, University of Phoenix,


Sports in Arizona

sporta
Image source: http://www.azcardinals.com/

The major professional sports of Arizona are basket ball, baseball, football, soccer, ice hockey and golf. The state has many golf courses. The state has three universities and so college level sports are common and fondly followed in Arizona. Some of the major professional sport teams are Arizona Cardinals, Phoenix Suns, Arizona Diamondbacks, Arizona Coyotes, Arizona Rattlers, Arizona Sundogs, Phoenix Mercury, Arizona United SC, and TC Tucson.


Demographics of Arizona


Arizona had an estimated population of 6,626,624 as of 2013, which is an increase of 3.7%, since the year 2010. The population density of the state is 45.2 people per square mile [8]. Over half of the population of Arizona live in cities.

As of 2009, Arizona's five largest ancestry groups are Mexican, German, Irish, English, and Italian. In 2013, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 84.0% White alone, 30.3% Hispanic, 5.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, and 56.7% non-Hispanic or non-Latino white [9]. The major languages spoken in Arizona are Spanish, Navajo, German, Chinese (including Mandarin), Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially Native American Languages of Arizona). Arizona has the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states.

Arizona Population Quick Facts [10]:

Population, 2014 estimate: 6,731484
Population, 2013: 6,634,997
Population, percent change, April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014: 5.3%
Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013: 6.5%
Persons under 18 years, percent, 2013: 24.4%
Persons 65 years and over, percent, 2013: 15.4%
Female persons, percent, 2013: 50.3%
Estimated population 2013 of various races:

Race: 2013
White alone: 84.0%
Black or African American: 4.6%
Asian: 3.2%
Native American or Alaska Native: 5.3%
Native Hawaiian & other Pacific Islander: 0.3%
Two or More Races: 2.6%
Hispanic or Latino: 30.3%

According to 2010 estimation, the Association of Religion Data Archives in Arizona reported that there are three largest denominational groups in Arizona that include the Catholic Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. Larger group of people in Arizona supports the Catholic Church followed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and then comparatively smaller group follow non-denominational Evangelical Protestants.


Government of Arizona


The Government of Arizona is guarded by the Constitution of Arizona. Arizona became a 48th state of the United States on February 14, 1912. The government is divided into three distinct branches: the executive branch (Governor of Alaska and state agencies), the legislative branch (the House of Representatives and the Senate) and the judicial branch (Supreme Court and lower courts).

The executive branch of Arizona consists of the elected officials of the Governor, Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Secretary of State, State Treasurer and State Mine Instructor. Republican, Janice K Brewer is the current and the 22nd Governor of Arizona, since 2009.

Arizona State Legislature is the body of the state government of Arizona which is divided into two separate assemblies, namely Arizona House of Representatives and Arizona Senate.
The Judiciary branch applies and administers laws and regulations to ensure justice in the state. The Arizona Court system structure comprises of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Trial Courts. Scott Bales is the current chief justice of the Supreme Court of Arizona, since July 1, 2014.

To know more about the Government of Arizona Click here.


Arts and Culture in Arizona

ExhibitionImage source: http://azmnh.org/
Besides the scenic landscape, Arizona also has rich arts and culture. The arts and culture of the state range from contemporary high class fine arts to traditional arts featuring the unique works of the Native Americans tribes. The state has several museums and exquisite galleries that exhibit the unique fine arts of the state. Some of the famous museums of the state include Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona Capitol Museum, Arizona Museum for Youth, Arizona State University Art Museum, Mesa Arts Center, Mills Collection, Mohave Museum of History and Arts, Tubac Center for the Arts, Tucson Museum of Art, and West Valley Art Museum. Additionally, Arizona is a much sought for destination for film and television shows shootings. Some of the famous Hollywood movies filmed in Arizona include Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona. Mesa Contemporary Arts (MCA) Museum is providing education of contemporary art to the art loving people. MCA organized many tours, activities and various educational programs so that all people can learn the beauty of arts.


Transportation of Arizona


The Arizona Department of Transportation (DOT)
is a transportation agency that overviews the entire transportation network of the state of Arizona. The main transportation system in Arizona consists of roadways, railways and airways. The main interstate routes in Arizona include I-17, I-19, I-8, I-10, I-40 and I-15.

The Arizona State rail Plan (SRP) is the first program implemented to manage the entire rail needs of the state. The major passenger trains include Amtrak (AMTK), Grand Canyon Railway (GCRX), and Paradise and Pacific Railroad.

Air transport is an essential gateway of Arizona and serves the locals and tourists from all over the world. The major airports of Arizona include Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Tucson International Airport , Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport,and Yuma International Airport.

To know more about Transportation of Arizona Click here.

Interesting Facts about Arizona

artImage source:
http://www.mesaartscenter.com
  • Arizona has more mountains than any one of the other mountain states. The state has
    roughly 3,928 mountain peaks and summits (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming).
  • Arizona has the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the world stretching from near Flagstaff along the Mogollon Rim to the White Mountains region.
  • Yuma is the highest producer of winter vegetables, especially lettuce in the United States.
  • It is commonly known that Arizona is represented by “Five C’s”: Cattle, Copper, Citrus, Cotton, and Climate.
  • Copper is most important and top product mined in Arizona than all the other states combined. The Morenci Mine is the largest copper producer in all of North America.
  • Arizona is one of the country’s largest producers of cotton. So surplus is the production that it is enough to stitch more than one pair of jeans for every person in the United States.
  • The village of Supai, located at the bottom of the Grand Canyon is the only place in the country where mail is delivered by mule.
  • The world’s largest collection of miniature airplane models is kept in the library at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Prescott, Arizona.
  • Parker Dam, located on the western border is the deepest dam in the world.
  • The official state fossil is Petrified wood.
  • The city of Phoenix was named after the mythical Egyptian phoenix bird. It was believed that it burst into flame and re-incarnate from its ashes. Similarly it was believed that the town sprouted from the ruins of a former civilization.
  • Winslow, Arizona housed the best-preserved meteor crater in the world.
  • The State Motto is Ditat Deus, which means “God Enriches” in Latin.
  • "Turquoise" is the official gemstone of Arizona.
  • Petrified wood was designated the state fossil of Arizona
  • Charles Poston was designated as the "Father of Arizona"

References:
  1. Arizona Geographical Facts
  2. Arizona Statehood
  3. Arizona Forests
  4. Arizona Climate
  5. Arizona Income
  6. Arizona Unemployment rate
  7. Arizona Leading Private Employers
  8. Arizona Population Density
  9. Arizona Race
  10. Arizona Population Facts

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